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June 5, 1944: The Forgotten Day! Rome Diary Friday, June 5, 2020 Partly Cloudy 72°F/22°C in Roma, Lazio, Italia Buongiorno amici miei! “The first of the Axis capitals is now in our hands. One up and two to go!” Franklin D. Roosevelt Headline: June 5, 1944 The whole world remembers what took place on 6 June 1944! What took place the day before was eclipsed by the Allies’ invasion at Normandy. If 6 June 1944 is The Longest Day, as author Cornelius Ryan called it, the day before – il giorno prima- has become Il giorno dimenticato - The Forgotten Day! While everyone remembers General Dwight Eisenhower as the commanding general of Allied forces at Normandy, the American commander of the forces that liberated Rome has been overshadowed as well. In leading the U.S. Fifth Army in the liberation of Rome, General Mark Clark had disobeyed his orders to cut off retreating German forces and instead marched into Rome. Ask what happened on 5 June 1944 and who was in charge and you will draw a blank. But, if you ask any Roman, or any Italian, for that matter, 5 June 1944 was the day that freedom returned to the Eternal City. In persuading FDR to launch an offensive from North Africa, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill referred repeatedly called Italy The Soft Underbelly of Europe. But, as U.S. Fifth Army Commander Mark Clark would write in his memoirs that “soft underbelly” turned into a tough, old gut! The Allies launched their first Italian invasion, Sicily in July 1943. When they landed on the Italian mainland at Salerno in September, the Italian Army surrendered, but the hard-fought battles between Allied and German forces continued. Both the Allies and German forces suffered heavy casualties along the roads to Rome, and it took the Allies four major offensives between January and May 1944 before Rome was in their sights. After the fall of Mussolini, Italy came under the complete control of Nazi forces and any Italian resistance to German control was ruthlessly dealt with by the forces of Field Marshal Albert Kesselring. Numerous atrocities were committed by Nazi troops against Italian civilians, and it was feared by many that the Germans would destroy the historic city rather than surrender it intact. By the time that American forces under General Clark had reached the outskirts of Rome on June 4th, 1944, Kesselring had declared it an Open City. Beginning on the fourth of June 1944, Allied troops were pouring into Rome for a victory celebration before continuing northward for the bloody battles that would lead to the liberation of all of Europe. June 5, 1944 - at the Coliseum! Field Marshal Kesselring had earned his reputation as being a ruthless soldier, but he had displayed a sense of history, and he seemed to understand the historical importance of Rome. While June 5th, 1944 is forever etched into the memories of every Italian, General March Clark’s moment of glory was soon overwhelmed by the events of the following day when General Dwight Eisenhower gave the order and initiated the largest seaborne invasion of human history at Normandy. Ciao, MikeBo © 2020 Mike Botula [Mike Botula, the author of LST 920: Charlie Botula’s Long, Slow Target! Is a retired broadcast journalist, government agency spokesperson and media consultant].
The Roll of Honor: LST 921, LCI(L)99, U-667 Brushy Creek Journal Memorial Day Monday May 25, 2020 Partly Sunny 63°F/ 13°C off Falmouth, UK Sunny 61°F/ 16°C off La Pallice, France Buonagiornata, We have a shared responsibility to look directly into the eye of history, and ask what we must do differently to curb such suffering again! President Barack Obama at Hiroshima, May 27, 2016 When I was a little boy, Memorial Day was still called Decoration Day and it fell on May 30th. My mother told me it was a memorial event that started at the end of the Civil War, because that’s when Americans would pay tribute to the fallen who wore both blue and gray by decorating their graves with flowers. The observance began with former slaves celebrating the Emancipation Proclamation by decorating the wartime graves of African Americans who fought for their freedom from slavery. Decoration Day quickly became a Memorial Day honoring Americans who fell in all our country’s wars. After World War I, we honored the fallen of The Great War on each November 11th. For many years, November 11 was Armistice Day, and on the 11th hour of the 11th day of the 11th month of the year there was a moment of silence to commemorate the end of The War to End All Wars. In 1968 Congress revamped our national holidays, combining these hallowed days into a pair of three-day weekends. Decoration Day is now Memorial Day and Armistice Day is now Veterans Day. Today we will again honor those who fought and died for their country. But, as the years pass, the real meaning of both days is sometimes lost in the holiday atmosphere that accompanies any long weekend. When my father returned from his US Navy service in World War II, he told my brother and I a story that is retold to each new generation in my family as every new Memorial Day approaches. It begins with a few terse lines from the LST 920’s Ship’s Log: LST 920 Ship’s Log: Monday 14 August 1944 1654 hours: First hit on LST 921, directly astern of us. Presumably by torpedo. 1654 hours: General Quarters sounded 1656 hours: LCI #99 (British) hit by torpedo presumably 1657 hours: All stations manned and ready; approximate position…50°54’ North, 4°45’ West 1657 hours: Relieved on conn by Captain Schultz and went to GQ station Ensign John J. Waters, Officer of the Deck My father, Lieutenant Charles Botula, Jr. died in 1965 without ever knowing the full story about the afternoon of August 14th, 1944 off the west coast of England. It has taken me years to research it. Neither my Dad nor his Captain – Harry N. Schultz ever knew which enemy submarine attacked them or what happened to that U boat after the LST 921 and HMS LCI(L)99 were torpedoed. Most of the survivors of that terrible afternoon have also faded from our midst, but their story is well worth the retelling. For in the retelling, we can pay them a long overdue honor. Monday, 14 August 1944 -16:54 hrs. - USS LST 920, commanded by Lieutenant Harry N. Schultz and USS LST 921, under the command of Lieutenant John Werner Enge were underway in convoy EBC 72 from Milford Haven, Wales to Falmouth, England. They were suddenly attacked by the German submarine U667, was under the command of Kapitӓnleutnant Karl-Heinze Lange. LST 921 was hit by the first torpedo and broke in two with the aft section sinking minutes later. Some survivors scampered to safety on the bow section. Others went overboard into the chilly water. When the aft section sank, it took half of the ship’s crew to the bottom. General Quarters was sounded on the LST 920 and Captain Schultz came to the bridge. Seeing survivors in the water, Schultz ordered his radioman, Seaman Fred Benck to send a request for permission to turn his ship around to pick up survivors. Permission was denied and the LST 920 was ordered to proceed to Falmouth. Shortly after receiving these orders, Schultz ordered Radioman Benck to send the message again. This time, Captain Schultz disregarded the order to proceed and ordered the LST 920 to turn around to rescue any survivors of the attack. As my father watched from the bridge of the LST 920, he spotted a torpedo coming straight at him. Just then, a British escort vessel, LCI(L)99 came alongside, took the full brunt of the torpedo and was blown out of the water. There is no way of knowing if the Captain of that British escort vessel deliberately steered his ship into the path of that oncoming enemy torpedo or if it was happenstance that put the crew of LCI(L)99 into harm’s way. Either way, the Skipper, Lt. Commander Arthur John Francis Patrick Reynolds, Royal Navy, died a hero. The 920 came about and Captain Schultz ordered two small boats into the water with Ensign John Waters in one and Ensign Harold Willcox in the other, along with nine other sailors to rescue survivors. Willcox tied a line around his waist and jumped into the water numerous times to help pull survivors aboard. In his After-Action Report, Captain Schultz singled out Waters and Willcox and the nine seamen for outstanding performance during the action. In all, 48 survivors were rescued and brought aboard the LST 920. Seaman Joe Wallace tells this part of the story, I remember one of the 921 crew members coming up to the bridge all wet and oily. I gave him my locker keys and location, and he showered and put on some clean dry clothes. By this time it was dark. We gathered the survivors and were on our way to Falmouth. There, I had the task of counting the departing survivors - 42 walking and 6 stretcher cases. A number of other survivors from the 921 as well as the LCI(L) 99 were rescued by a British ship that joined in the rescue operation. All told, about 65 survivors were picked up, but fully half of the LST 921’s complement of 107 officers and crew had been lost. Years would pass before a dusty and forgotten archive* would reveal the names of the sailors – Americans, British and German who lost their lives on that August afternoon more than seventy years ago. I would like us to remember: LST 921 Baker, Thomas A., USNR Seaman First Class Banit, Roman J., USNR Seaman Second Class Bennett, Frederick W., USNR Seaman First Class Bent, Eugene E., USNR Seaman First Class Clements, Charles M., USNR Seaman First Class Dove, Raleigh J., USNR Seaman Second Class Feeney, Lawrence E., USNR Fireman Second Class Fitton, Edward Joseph, USNR Seaman Second Class Freely, James Joseph, USNR Boatswain's Mate 1st Class Furino, Louis A., USNR Coxswain Guthrie, Edward J., USNR Ensign Guziak, Walter V., USNR Seaman Second Class Hoak, William K., USNR Gunner's Mate Third Class Jerzewski, Chester R., USNR Seaman Second Class Jones, Oscar R., USNR Coxswain Kozlik, John H., USNR Seaman First Class Lowe, Samuel M., USNR Seaman Second Class Micheline, Carmine A., USNR Seaman Second Class Mindlin, Daniel, USNR Ensign Monaco, Robert Chester, USNR Radioman Second Class Moore, Charles H., USNR Seaman Second Class Mulholland, William P., USNR Seaman Second Class Newberry, Clyde, USNR Seaman Second Class Pizon, John J., USNR Seaman First Class Potasky, Joseph E., USNR Seaman First Class Progy, Henry, USNR Motor Mach Mate 3rd Class Richard, Donald James, USNR Gunner's Mate 3rd Class Siring, Ronald John, USNR Ship's Cook Third Class Smith, Kenneth J., USN Boatswain's Mate 2nd Class Smith, Lee I., USNR Seaman Second Class Smith, Ray R., USNR Seaman First Class Sprague, Herbert K., USNR Seaman Second Class Suazoe, Ray M., USNR Seaman Second Class Totulis, Albert G., USN Gunner's Mate 3rd Class Trachsel, Ernest W., USNR Seaman Second Class Van Why, Henry, USNR Seaman Second Class Verity, Edward C., USNR Seaman Second Class Vitense, Glenn, USNR Seaman First Class Widmer, Richard C., USNR Seaman Second Class Yavornitzky, Andrew J., USNR Shipfitter Second Class The British escort vessel – LCI(L) 99 was a much smaller ship than the wounded LST 921. It was about 150 feet long compared to the LST’s 328 feet. And, instead of a ship’s complement of 110 officers and crew, LCI(L) 99’s casualty list shows a crew of eight – two officers and six enlisted men, including the 19-year-old ship’s cook, Able Seaman William Todd. Todd’s great-niece, Gillian Whittle told me in an email, Bill as he was known was only 19 when he died, and he came from Chorley, Lancashire, England. I imagine he was called up when he turned 18. He was acting able seaman and he was the ships cook. We as a family are enormously proud of him and I go to Kent, England when I can to lay flowers at the naval memorial. I am afraid I do not know much else about my Uncle, but I have his medals and I had the privilege of wearing them proudly on remembrance parade for him one year and we keep his memory going. Also, aboard the Escort Ship LCI(L) 99 on that deadly August 14, 1944 were: Lt. Commander Arthur John Francis Patrick Reynolds, RN, Age 24 Sub-lieutenant Douglas Edwin Swatridge, RNVR, Age 25 Leading Seaman Gordon Henry Astor House, RN, Age 21 Able Seaman James Quine, RN, Age 21 Able Seaman Francis Ernest Dennis Shacklock, RN, Age 19 Ordinary Seaman John Shields, RN, Age unknown Ordinary Seaman Donald Maurice Thompson, RN, Age 20 Able Seaman William Todd, RN, Age 19 Toward the end of November 2018, I received an email from Able Seaman William Todd’s great-niece, Gillian Whittle. In her correspondence, she admitted that she never really knew her great-uncle, but she thanked me for my efforts to keep the memories of all who died that day fresh in the memories of Americans and Britons alike. She wrote, We, as a family are immensely proud of him and I go to Kent, England when I can to lay flowers at the naval memorial. I am afraid I do not know much else about my Uncle, but I have his medals and I had the privilege of wearing them proudly on remembrance parade for him one year. Diver Christophe Moriceau atwreckage of U 667 The attacking submarine, U 667, had sunk four ships including the LST 921 and LCI (99), the Liberty Ship SS Ezra Weston and HMS Regina on what turned out to be its most successful cruise, as well as an RAF bomber on a previous mission. But as it headed back to its base and a hero’s welcome, its jubilant crewmen could not know that their luck was about to change. In all the research I did for this story, the US Navy and German Kriegsmarine archives revealed only that U 667 struck a mine on or about August 25th on the way back to its home base. But, as I researched further, I found the answer on a specialty internet site: uboat.net, which is devoted to the archives of the Kriegsmarine and its unterseebooten. According to the archives, the RAF had carried out a series of aerial mine-laying missions off the coast of France in an area code-named Cinnamon right after the U 667 left port on its final cruise. The RAF dropped mines into the U 667’s inbound route back to base. An RAF report that I read showed that the coordinates of that August 1944 mine-laying sweep matches the location where the U 667 was finally found and examined by diving crews. The loss of the U 667 was recorded by the Kriegsmarine after it missed a scheduled radio check-in on August 25th. When any U boat failed to meet its daily radio check-in, Admiral Karl Dönitz’ high command assumed that the sub had been lost. And so it was when U 667 missed its scheduled radio check on 25 August 1944. The exploding mine sent U 667 to the bottom of the Bay of Biscay, where it remains with its entire crew. Along with the U 667’s Kapitӓnleutnant Karl-Heinze Lange, the identities of the other sailors in his crew are listed from the roster of all the sailors who served aboard her. They are: Name Rank (In German) Age Lange, Karl-Heinze Kapitӓnleutnant 26 Bauch, Walter Omasch 30 Bensel, Rolf-Rudiger Olt.z.S. 21 Borowsky, Helmut MaschMt 23 Brübach, Friedrich MtrOGfr 20 Brunk, Kurt MaschOFfr 21 Drewes, Gustav MaschMt 23 Eder, Franz MaschOGfr 21 Ederer, Hans OfkMt 24 Ehrenfeld, Kurt OfkMt 25 Erasimus, Johann MaschOGfr 20 Faust, Erich Olt.z.S 23 Fickert, Wilhelm MtrOGfr 23 Figlon, Herbert MechOGfr 22 Flach, Hans OsanMt 23 Grimm, Kurt MaschOGfr 20 Hagelloch, Hans-Georg OLt.ing.d.R 23 Hahl, Adam MaschOGfr 21 Hantel, Artur MtrOGfr 22 Hochstetter, Wilhelm OMaschMt 23 Holle, Oswald MaschOGfr 20 Kabs, Helmut MaschOGfr 21 Krӧller, Helmut Olt.z.S 23 Laschke, Kurt MaschMt 21 Leisler-Klep, Jürgen Lt.z.S n/a Matthias, Heinz-Karl OMaschMt 25 Mӓurer, Ludwig FkOGfr 21 Mittler, Arnold MaschOGfr 21 Mrziglod, Heinrich BtsMt 22 Oehler, August MtrHGfr 38 Proske, Walter MtrOGfr 21 Reiβach, Werner StOStrm 30 Reitor, Emil MechOGfr 21 Richter, Georg OMasch 32 Richter, Helmut OMechMt 24 Sauer, Helmut MtrOGfr 21 Schӓfer, Richard MaschOGfr 19 Scheit, Reinhold ObstMt 27 Schӧmetzler, Rudolf MaschOGfr 20 Schrӧder, Gerhard MtrOGfr 21 Schrӧder, Günther Olt.z.S 30 Schulz, Kurt OMaschMt 24 Seeliger, Willi MtrOGfr 20 Senden, Wilhelm MtrOGfr 21 Steigerwald, Wilhelm FkOGfr 20 Warmbold, Adolf MtrOGfr 23 Weiβ, Rudolf MaschOGfr 21 Witzel, Hans BtsMt 23 Christophe Moriceau, the French diver who has explored the U 667’s final resting place and photographed the site extensively for his dive organization L’Expédition Scyllias and its web site www.scyllias.fr explained to me that unlike the United States and Great Britain, France has no legal protection for wreck sites that might contain human remains. War graves carry the protections of international law. But that protection does not exist in France’s territorial waters. It is fitting that we remember all who perished. Eternal Father, strong to save, Whose arm hath bound the restless wave, Who bid'st the mighty ocean deep Its own appointed limits keep; Oh, hear us when we cry to Thee, For those in peril on the sea! US Navy Hymn [Mike Botula, the author of LST 920: Charlie Botula’s Long, Slow Target! is a retired broadcast journalist, government spokesperson and media consultant. Mike’s book is available from Amazon or Barnes and Noble Books. You can read more about Mike Botula at www.mikebotula.com] *LST 921; LCI(L)99; U 667 casualty lists via US Navy Archives, Royal Navy and Uboat.net. © By Mike Botula 2019
DIARIO DI ROMA VI – Il Bambino! Wednesday January 29, 2020 Sunny 58°F/14°C in Cedar Park, Texas, USA Partly Cloudy 60°F/16°C in Roma, Lazio, Italia Buonagiornata, And, suddenly, it was over! My more than two months in the City of Echoes (la città degli echi) was behind me, and I was aboard a Delta jetliner headed toward New York’s JFK International Airport on the first leg of my flight home to the Austin, Texas area and my cozy apartment in Cedar Park. During 2019 I had spent more than four months as a resident of the eternal city. Actually, I hadn’t planned to return to Rome until the late Spring. But, that all changed with Michael and Laura’s announcement that their first child – a boy – would be born in November. Well now! I would HAVE to be back for THAT EVENT! So, even though I had just arrived, I had to begin making plans to come back! Alexander Botula And so, I did! After suffering along with millions of other Europeans through a heat wave of epic proportions in the early summer, I returned to my second home city on November 21, 2019 planning to stay through the Thanksgiving, Christmas and New Year holidays along with my birthday on January 17th and fly back to Texas on January 22nd. The weather – which had been over 105°F/40°C at times – had turned rainy and cold since I had been gone. Our first stop after Michael picked me up at Fiumicino International Airport was to make a beeline for Michael and Laura’s to meet my new grandson, Alexander Botula. There, I met the little bundle of joy who was to play an important part in my life for the next two months. As I held him in my arms, I could visualize a similar experience 45 years before, when I held Alexander’s father in my arms for the first time. Son, grandson…it was a testimony to the continuing cycle of life! In our effort to find an apartment for me on short notice, we reached out to everyone that I had rented from in the past, starting with Stefania, my landlady on Viale Oscar Sinigaglia, but that apartment was no longer available for short-term vacation rental. My friend Mohamed’s place on Viale Cesare Pavese was also booked. Then, I called Amina whose cozy little place I had rented several times. Another strikeout – she had reserved it for her family members who were coming from Paris for the holidays. But, Amina had a friend – Maria, who had an apartment a few blocks away. She would check on my behalf as to availability. Sure enough, word came back about a week later that the apartment would be available at a special rate because I was a friend of Amina’s. Problem solved, I thought, until two weeks before my departure date, when Maria called me to say that the contactors she hired to renovate the apartment would miss their deadline and Maria’s apartment wouldn’t be available after all. Since I had purchased my non-refundable plane ticket, I was suddenly in a very big bind. Several days later, my son called to tell me that he had put a deposit on a place just off Viale Cesare Pavese – the notorious Vittorini Penthouse – whose shortcomings have been recounted in an earlier Rome Diary! And so, my adventure came full circle with my move to Via Laurentina 605. It was the ideal, if expensive, solution to the problem. The new apartment came complete with an affable pair of new landlords – Cristiano and Delia. Cristiano spoke the better English of the couple, but Delia and I soon made good use of the translators on our IPhones. Soon, we were chattering like magpies. She would come in to clean the apartment every week. The result was that the place was nearly always spotless. After all the anxiety of getting shut out of one apartment and having to flee another, I had found the perfect place. I then sent Mohamed a message asking when he would be in Rome. As it turned out, he would not be in Rome until December 24th. Marsha would be traveling back to the States in mid-December. There would be no December Rome Comedy Night this year. So three of my close friends would either be traveling during the holidays or they wouldn’t arrive for several weeks. As a result, I saw an awful lot of Michael and Laura and the baby during my first several weeks in Rome Amina in Vietnam Wasting no time after all of the anxiety of my first days in Rome, I called Amina and invited her for coffee. We met in front of my apartment and immediately adjourned to a nearby bar for caffè. She would host her family for the following week, she told me, whereupon she would follow them to Paris for Christmas and the New Year. She would return to Rome briefly, then she would be off for a holiday in Vietnam, of all places. Bottom line: we would probably not be meeting up for coffee after that evening. But, in the next breath, I agreed to be her guest for lunch the following day, at her place of employ – FAO – the U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization. FAO is one of the largest employers in Rome – 11,500 scattered throughout the city. Nearly 4,000 people, including my friend work in the massive complex built by Benito Mussolini during the 1930’s as his colonial headquarters. The complex overlooks the Circo Massimo! And so, the following day, I stepped aboard the bus that stops conveniently in front of my building, to be whisked to the Laurentina Metro Station and the subway ride to Circo Massimo and lunch with Amina in the rooftop cafeteria overlooking the oval track where Ben-Hur raced in an epic contest! Thanksgiving is not an Italian holiday! But, my son has brought the holiday with him. This year, Family Birthday Celebration Michael ordered two turkeys. One to smoke Texas-style in his smoker, and the other one to deep-fry. The Italian word for turkey is tacchino. Two turkeys are tacchini. We had duè tacchini at our Thanksgiving, primarily because with little Alexander’s arrival, the family has a lot to be thankful for this year! Christmas and the New Year passed in similar fashion, small, intimate gatherings with family and friends. Since Laura and I have birthdays which are two days apart, this was cause for a special celebration. And so, it was back to Tiziana and Pino’s apartment for the celebration. After a hearty Italian lunch – a special birthday cake was brought out and everyone joined together in singing Happy Birthday to Laura and me – in Italian, of course! A few days later, I would board a plane for the flight back to Texas, and my other home. Ciao, MikeBo [Mike Botula, the author of LST 920: Charlie Botula’s Long, Slow Target! is a retired broadcast journalist, government agency spokesperson and media consultant. Mike’s book is available from Amazon Books. You can read more about Mike Botula at www.mikebotula.com...now with Google Translator for our international audience!] © By Mike Botula 2020
LST 920: Charlie Botula's Long, Slow Target!
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